Electric Vehicle


A phenomenon in which a cell, operated in successive cycles to less than full, depth of discharge, temporarily loses the remainder of its capacity at normal voltage levels (usually applies only to Ni-Cd cells).

A car that runs purely on electric power, stored in an on-board battery that is charged from mains electricity (typically at a dedicated chargepoint).

A car with a combination of a traditional internal combustion engine and a rechargeable battery, allowing for either pure electric-powered driving or extended range from a combination of the petrol engine and electric motor.

A blanket term for any vehicle with a plug socket, including BEVs and PHEVs.

Can be used as a catch-all term for BEVs, PHEVs and REx, but often used to refer to pure electric vehicles i.e. BEVs.


A car that has official tailpipe carbon dioxide emissions of less than 75g/km, and is therefore eligible for grants and benefits from the UK government.

An EV that has only an electric drivetrain, but a small petrol generator to charge the battery when range is depleted for longer trips. Often considered a type of PHEV.

A 100% fossil fueled hybrid car. The most common is the Toyota Prius. A small battery is charged through regenerative braking that generates some electric power in tandem to a combustion engine, but all energy originates from petrol.

This term refers to an EV which uses a hydrogen fuel cell to power its electric motor. The fuel cells create the electricity to power the car.

This term is used for a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petrol or diesel. It includes engines that don't solely rely on petroleum such as PHEV, EV, FCEVS, but also includes HEVs.

A five pin plug that also features a clip, this connector is common in the US and is typically found on EVs manufactured by Asian and US brands (e.g. Nissan, Mitsubishi and GM/Vauxhall/Opel). However its prominence is fading as Nissan have moved to Type 2.

A seven pin plug with one flat edge, this connector was originally favoured by European brands e.g. BMW, VW group, but is now becoming the most popular on all cars. Can carry three-phase power and locks into the socket of a charging point.


A round four pin plug, this connector is only used for rapid charging points and is typically compatible with EVs manufactured by Asian brands e.g. Mitsubishi and Nissan. Can offer Vehicle to Grid (V2G) but has less power than CCS and requires two separate sockets.

Standardised by the EU, this connector combines two DC pins arranged below the Type 2 AC connector and uses 3 of the Type 2s pins. Found on most Type 2 BEVs.

The plug for a standard UK electrical outlet. This connector can be used to charge some EVs in an emergency but lacks the safety, speed and security features of a dedicated chargepoint.

The practice of plugging in your electric vehicle whenever you park while out and about, making use of the time your car is not in use to add charge to your battery. This helps avoid range anxiety and means you will rarely find yourself waiting for your car to charge. 

Plugging your electric car in to charge while it is parked at home, typically overnight. A dedicated home charging point is the best and safest way of doing this.

En route charging typically requires high powered rapid chargers, that put >100 miles into your electric car in the time it takes to grab a coffee, a snack and use the facilities. This enables you to take long-distance trips in your electric car, but is not needed day-to-day.

Miles of range per hour of charge

A unit of energy equivalent to the energy transferred in one hour by one thousand watts of power. Electric car batteries are typically measured in kilowatt hours. 1 kilowatt hour is typically 3-4 miles of range in a BEV.

A catch-all term for a series of functions that a Wi-Fi connected chargepoint can perform. Typically this refers to things like load balancing, energy monitoring and “managed charging”, i.e. shifting charging periods away from periods of high grid demand and/or low grid supply and to periods of low grid demand and/or high grid supply.

The concept of using your electric car battery to release power back through the charger either for use in the local building or back into the grid at large during time of high grid demand.

A better option for home charging, this allows for both top up and overnight charging through a dedicated chargepoint. The 3.7kW Pod Point Solo is a good example of this type of charging point and provides faster charging times than a 3 pin socket.

Ideal for top up charging, most fast chargepoints offer 7kW, ideal for keeping you going while out and about. Typically found in homes, workplaces and in public car parks where people typically spend circa 40 mins or more.

Typically used for en-route charging on long distance journeys, rapid chargers can also be used as occasional “caught short” chargers, particularly if available somewhere convenient, e.g. a supermarket. Rapid charging takes place from 43kW power and above.

 A method of breaking used by EV in which energy from the braking of the vehicle is stored and used.

An ICE is powered by combustible fuel, often petroleum or natural gas products.

 All vehicles that are powered by Fossil Fuels are ICEVs

Infrastructure designed to supply power to EVs. EVSE can charge a wide variety of EVs including BEVs and PHEVs

Charging your EV using a common household outlet up to 120v. Level 1 is the slowest method of charging and can take up to 24 hours or more to full charge your EV.

Charges your EV at 240v using an installed outlet. Level 2 chargers are the most recommended chargers to EV owners. Depending on your EV model and charger, Level 2 can give you vehicle 5x as quickly as Level 1 which translates to up to 26 miles per hour of charging.

Also known as DC charging, the fastest method of charging for all EVs. It can fully charge an EV battery in about half an hour. Level three chargers are currently rare as they’re very expensive and require more power.

A safety protection component within an EVSE that reduces the chance of a person getting an electric shock.

A gas such as Carbon Dioxide that contributes to global warming through the absorption of infrared radiation.

An electronic system within the Vehicle that manages and protects the battery

Also known as a Li-ion, it is a common rechargeable battery

The location where electric vehicles can be plugged in and charged, whether at home, work or in a public accessible location.


Is an element in an infrastructure that safely supplies electric energy for the recharging of electric vehicles, also known as an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment).


 A device attached to the cable from an EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) that connects to an electric vehicle  allowing it to charge


A unit of energy equivalent to the energy transferred or expended in one hour by one kilowatt of power. Electric car battery size is measured in kilowatt-hours.


The twisting force that causes rotation. In cars, torque rules and is the major factor in a car’s accelerative ability. Petrol and diesel engines deliver torque over a curve as RPM increases, meaning they have peak power at a given RPM. Electric motors, on the other hand, deliver maximum torque from zero revs, meaning acceleration from standstill can be phenomenal.


Zero Emission Vehicle – or ZEV, is a vehicle that emits no tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power. Harmful pollutants to the health and the environment include particulates (soot), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. 


Electric motors that drive an electric vehicle are called traction motors.